Relational Operators
A relational operator compares two values and determines the relationship between those two values.
Operator

Result

Example

Meaning

Return value

==

Equals

a==1

Check if value of variable a equals to 1

True / False

!=

Not Equals

a!=1

Check if value of variable a not equals to 1

True / False

>

Greater Than

a>1

Check if value of variable a is greater than 1

True / False

>=

Greater Than or Equals

a>=1

Check if value of variable a is greater than or equals to 1

True / False

<

Lesser Than

a<1

Check if value of variable a is lesser than 1

True / False

<=

Lesser Than or Equals

a<=1

Check if value of variable a is lesser than or equals to 1.

True / False

Note:
 Unlike Arithmetic Operators, Relational Operators return Boolean value (either true or false).
 Relational operators are mostly used while using control blocks in Java. For example – ifelse blocks, while loop, do while loop, for loop.
Sample Program for Relational Expressions
Try It
public class RelationalOperators {
public static void main(String[] args) {
// TODO Autogenerated method stub
int a = 1;
System.out.println("Comparing Equality:: Value of variable a is:: "+ a);
System.out.println("a==1 ? ::"+ (a==1));
System.out.println("a==5 ? ::"+ (a==5));
System.out.println();
System.out.println("a>1 ? ::"+ (a>1));
System.out.println("a>=1 ? ::"+ (a>=1));
System.out.println();
System.out.println("a
The output is shown below or you can click on Try It button.
Bitwise Operators
Simple Bitwise Operators
Operator

Result

Example

Result

~

Bitwise Unary NOT

int a = ~0;

1

&

Bitwise AND

int a = 10&41

8



Bitwise OR

int a = 10^41

43

^

Bitwise XOR(Exclusive OR)

int a = 1041

35

<<

Shift Left

int a = 10<<2

40

>>

Shift Right

int a = 10>>2

2

>>>

Shift right Zero fill

int a = 10>>>2

1073741823

In Java, all the Bitwise operators first convert the input in bits, and then work on them, bit by bit.
Explanations of the results in the above table.
Bitwise Unary NOT
Bitwise Unary NOT inverts every bit.
int a = ~0;
int has a size of 32 bit in Java.
Thus, 0 can be represented as
00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
So, ~0 represents
11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111
And, that represents 1 in Java.
Similarly, int a = 1 can be represented as –
*Note: green boxes represents 1 bit and grey colored boxes represent 0 bit.
That means, ~a means –
Which is actually 2.
Bitwise AND
AND operation returns 1, if the both the bits are 1, else in any case, it returns 0.
int a = 10&41;
Binary representation of 10 is  00000000 00000000 00000000 00001010
Binary representation of 41 is  00000000 00000000 00000000 00101001

AND of 10 and 41 is 00000000 00000000 00000000 00001000
And, this represents 8.
Bitwise OR
OR operation returns 1, if any of the bit is 1.
int a = 1041;
Binary representation of 10 is  00000000 00000000 00000000 00001010
Binary representation of 41 is  00000000 00000000 00000000 00101001

OR of 10 and 41 is 00000000 00000000 00000000 00101011
And, this represents 43.
Bitwise XOR
XOR returns 1 if exactly one bit in 2 bits is 1
int a = 10^41;
Binary representation of 10 is  00000000 00000000 00000000 00001010
Binary representation of 41 is  00000000 00000000 00000000 00101001

OR of 10 and 41 is 00000000 00000000 00000000 00100011
And, this represents 35.
Shift Left
Shift left operator shifts every bit of the input to the right.
int a = 10<<2;
This means, every bit of 10 will be shifted to left by 2 bits and the empty spaces will be replaced by 0.
Binary representation of 10 is  00000000 00000000 00000000 00001010
Therefore, 10<
Which is actually 40 in Integer representation.
Shift Right (Also known as Signed Shift)
Shift left operator shifts every bit of the input to the right.
int a = 10>>2;
This means, every bit of 10 will be shifted to right by 2 bits.
Binary representation of 10 is  00000000 00000000 00000000 00001010
Therefore, 10>>2 is  00000000 00000000 00000000 00000010
Which is actually 2 in Integer representation.
Here the interesting point to note is that, this shift preserves the sign of the input. Thus, as 10 is a positive integer, it preserves the positive sign. Now, let us take an example of a negative number.
Binary representation of 10 is – 11111111 11111111 11111111 11110110
Therefore, 10>>2 is  11111111 11111111 11111111 11111101
The bits are shifted to the right, but the empty spaces created in the left side are replaced by 1, to preserve the sign of the input, which is negative.
The result is 3 in Integer representation.
Shift right ZERO (Unsigned Shift)
This difference or >>> operator to >> operator is that: >>> doesn’t preserve the sign of the input. It, replaces the empty places created of the left side while shifting with zeros.
Let us, the same example of 10 with operator >>>.
Binary representation of 10 is – 11111111 11111111 11111111 11110110
Therefore, 10>>>2 is  00111111 11111111 11111111 11111101
Which is 1073741821 in Integer representation
So, we have complete our Concepts of Java Operators!
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